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NOODLES: MAKING THE MOST OF IT

35TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE AND GENERAL MEETING COMMUNIQUE
October 14, 2011
ENERGY DRINK: UNMASKING THE MYTH
June 10, 2013
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NOODLES: MAKING THE MOST OF IT

PROF (MRS) F. M. DAVID- ABRAHAM, EBONYI STATE UNIVERSITY ABAKALIKI.

1.0 INTRODUCTION:

Noodles are strips or strands cut from a sheet of dough made from flour, water and either common salt or a mixture of alkaline salts. Noodles are generally wheat based products. However; they could be produced from rice , potato , buckwheat , corn , bean, yam or soybean flours.

Noodles are popular foods in South East Asia and have become accepted and popular in many countries including, Nigeria. Instant Noodles was first produced by Nisshin products in 1958 (Pravda.ru,2005). It was recognized as the best Japanese invention of the 20th century. Almost 40% of wheat products in Asian countries are consumed in the form of noodles (Ojure and Quadri, 2012). The success of noodles all over the world is due to its low and affordable prices, bearable taste, convenience, and the minimum efforts that the product requires for cooking.

2.0 THE GLOBAL DEMAND AND CONSUMPTION OF INSTANT NOODLES

Dry Noodles take a top position on the list of fast meals .About 95 billion pieces of instant noodles were produced in 2010 equivalent to 1.1 piece/person/month. The global demand for instant noodles as complied by World Instant Noodle Association, (2013) is presented in Table 1.0.Nigeria is the largest instant noodles consumer in Africa and the 12th largest consumer in the world. There are about nine brands of instant noodles in Nigeria.

Table 1.0 Global Demand for Instant Noodles

 

Country / Region 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Total 92,110 92,690 96,370 98,740 101,420
1 China / Hong Kong 42,530 40,860 42,300 42,470 44,030
2 Indonesia 13,700 13,930 14,400 14,530 14,100
3 Japan 5,100 5,340 5,290 5,510 5,410
4 Vietnam 4,070 4,300 4,820 4,900 5,060
5 India 1,480 2,280 2,940 3,530 4,360
6 USA 4,150 4,290 4,180 4,270 4,340
7 Republic of Korea 3,340 3,480 3,410 3,590 3,520
8 Thailand 2,170 2,350 2,710 2,880 2,960
9 Philippines 2,500 2,550 2,700 2,840 2,720
10 Brazil 1,690 1,870 2,000 2,140 2,320
11 Russia 2,400 2,140 1,900 2,060 2,090
12 Nigeria 1,400 1,600 1,670 1,790 1,900
13 Malaysia 1,210 1,200 1,220 1,320 1,300
14 Taiwan 1,110 1,070 1,020 1,010 1,010
15 Mexico 860 860 830 850 890
15 Nepal 510 590 730 820 890
17 Saudi Arabia N/A N/A 560 590 580
18 Ukraine 500 520 540 540 560
19 Australia 320 330 340 340 350
20 UK 260 260 260 300 340
21 Poland N/A 300 300 300 300
21 Myanmar 210 210 240 240 300
23 Cambodia 240 240 330 260 260
24 Canada 200 200 210 210 210
25 Germany 180 180 180 180 180
26 Bangladesh 150 60 90 100 160
27 Kazakhstan 110 120 120 120 150
28 Pakistan 110 110 110 120 140
29 Singapore 110 120 120 130 130
30 South Africa 90 90 90 100 120
31 Uzbekistan 90 90 100 110 100
31 Egypt 50 60 70 90 100
33 New Zealand 60 70 70 70 80
34 Czech N/A 50 50 50 60
35 France 40 40 40 50 50
36 Hungary N/A 20 20 20 20
37 Finland N/A 20 20 20 20
38 Sweden N/A 0 0 20 20
39 Denmark N/A 10 20 20 20
40 Netherlands 20 20 20 20 20
41 Costa Rica 20 20 20 10 10
42 Belgium 10 10 20 10 10
43 Others 1,120 840 310 220 230

 

Unit: 1 Million Packets (Bags/Cups)
Estimated by World Instant Noodles Association (WINA,2013)

3.0 CLASSIFICATION OF NOODLES

Noodles are classified based on many criteria such as formulation, size, processing methods and product forms. These are discussed below :-

Formulation

Noodles are primarily formulated from flour, water and salt. Different types of noodles can also be made with the addition of some other ingredients. Noodle formulation in different countries is presented in Table 2.0.

 

Table 2.0 Noodle Formulation In Different Countries

 

Ingredient ChineseRaw Japanese Ud Udon ChineseeW wet MMMalaysianHo Hokkien Chuku me men Instantfried Thailandddd Bares
Flour 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Water 28 34 32 30-33 32 34-37 28
Salt 1.2 2 2 2 1 1.6 3
Potatostarch
Sodiumhydroxide 0.3
SodiumCarbonate 0.45 0.7 0.1 1.3
Potassiumcarbonate 0.45 0.6 0.1
Eggs 10
Guar gum 0-0
Polyphosphate 0-0.1

 

( Hou and Kruk ,1998) .

Chinese-type noodles are generally made from hard wheat flours, with characteristic bright creamy white or bright yellow colour and firm texture, while Japanese noodles are made from soft wheat flour of medium protein content and a creamy white colour. Noodles can be classified as white (containing salt) examples of which are Chinese raw noodles, Japanese noodles and dry noodles or yellow containing alkaline salt .Chinese wet noodles are characterized by the presence of alkali salt while some others are characterized by the presence of sodium hydroxide. The high pH gives the noodles their characteristic yellowness, alkaline flavor, and improved texture (Morris et al.,2000). Chinese wet and Malaysian hokkien are parboiled types while chukumen can be either uncooked or cooked. Instant fried noodles contain guar gum or other hydrocolloids which makes them firmer and easier to rehydrate upon cooking or soaking. Polyphosphate allow more water retention on the noodle surface, thus giving them better mouthfeel. Native or modified starches are added in instant fried noodles to give springy texture, improved cooking and steaming quality. Noodles containing buckwheat are called soba. These are light brown or grey in colour with a unique taste and flavor ( Hou and Kruk ,1998).

3.2 SIZE

Noodles are classified based on the width of the strands ( Hou and kruk, 1998) as Very thin ( 0.7 – 1.2 mm wide) ,Thin (1.3 – 1.7 mm wide) ,Standard (1.9 – 3.8 mm wide),Flat ( 5.0 – 6.0 mm wide) .

3.3 PRODUCTION METHODS

Noodles can be produced with hand or machine.

Hand –made noodles are still available in Asia because of their pleasant texture while machines are best suited for mass production of noodles.

The general noodle processing operations include mixing raw materials, dough sheeting, compounding, sheeting, rolling and slitting. The process remain the same irrespective of the noodles type or the country

The steps as described by Hou and Kruk ,(1998 ) and Wikipedia encyclopedia ,(2011) are :-

a. Mixing: The ingredients such as flour ,starch ,water, salt or alkali salts, are mixed in a mixer for 10 – 15 mins.

b. Dough Resting: The dough after mixing, is left for 20 – 40mins to mature before compounding. The dough is rested in a container and stirred slowly to help the water penetrate the dough particles and for even distribution of the ingredients.

c. Sheeting/Compounding: The rested dough pieces are divided into two parties .Each is passed through a pair of sheeting rolls to form a noodle dough sheet. The two sheets are compounded and passed through a second set of sheeting rolls to form a single sheet with the dough thickness reduced between 20-40%.The process is repeated to develop gluten more easily as the sheet is folded and passed through the rollers several times. This will create the stringy and chewy texture found in instant noodles. The combined dough sheet is rested for about 1 hour.

d. Sheeting/Slitting/WavingThe dough sheet is passed through a series of 4-6 pairs of rolls with decreasing roll gaps. The final dough thickness is set on the calibration rolls according to noodle type. The sheet is cut into strands of desired width and length with a slitter and a cutter respectively.

e. Cooking: In making instant noodles, the wavy noodles stands are conveyed to a steamer to cook the noodles. Cooking processes include parboiling, boiling and steaming. Chinese wet noodles are parboiled for about 45-90 seconds to achieve 90% starch gelatinization. The noodles are then coated with 1-2% edible vegetable oil to prevent the stands from sticking together. They are usually re-cooked by boiling or stir-frying prior to consumption.

Japanese noodles are boiled for 10-15 minutes, rinsed and cooled in cooling water, steeped in dilute acidic water before packing and further steamed for more than 30 sec. in a pressurized steamer.

f. Noodle Drying : Drying can be achieved by air-drying, deep drying or vacuum drying. Air drying takes 5-8 hours to dry regular noodles and 30-40 minutes to dry steamed noodles. Drying by frying takes only a few minutes. it is a very fast process. Water vaporizes quickly from the surface of the noodles upon dipping into the hot oil .

The frying process decreases the moisture content from 30-50 % to 2-5 % . Common oils used are cotton seed and palm oil mixtures, only palm oil or palm olein . It takes 3-4 minutes to cook or soak instant fried noodles in hot water before consumption.

 

g. Cooling : Noodles are cooled before packaging with seasoning. The common packaging in Nigeria is the packaging with impermeable films with seasoning in small sachets inside. Many flavours that could be added are beef, chicken, pork e.t.c

There is a slight modification in the production of Dangote noodles. The steps are as presented below in Fig1.0. A process step called souping is introduced. At this point ,chicken soup prepared from frozen chicken are sprayed on the noodles to give it that chicken taste and flavor.

 

 

 

 

 

 

DOUGH FEEDING/PRESING

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

STEAMING

 

 

CUTTING AND FOLDING

 

 

 

 

 

 

PACKAGING

 

 

STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION

 

FIG 1.0 FLOW CHART FOR THE PRODUCTION OF DANGOTE NOODLES (Igwe,2008)

 

 

3.4 PRODUCT FORM

Noodle classification can also be based on the form of the product (oh, et al .,1983) .

Fresh:-. Noodle strands from rolls are cut and packaged. These fresh or raw noodles contain about 35% moisture. These are consumed within 24 hours of manufacture to avoid discoloration. They are usually thin which allows them to cook rapidly. These are made from strong flour that imparts a chewy texture when cooked. . Only about 2% of white salted noodles are sold fresh.

Boiled:- fresh noodles strands are either parboiled or fully cooked. Some such as Chinese wet and hokkien noodles are rinsed in cold water, drained, cooked with 1 – 2% red oil to prevent sticking. Hokkien noodles are alkaline noodles that are essentially sold as boiled noodles with 52% moisture content.

Steamed :- Fresh alkaline noodle strands are steamed and softened with water through rinsing or steeping. These are shaped and fried in oil at 140 – 150oC for 2 mins. Frying reduces the water content and gives the distinct flavor.

Dried:-Fresh noodle strands are dried by sunlight or in a controlled chamber to about 8 – 10% moisture. Highly purified flours are generally used to impart the desired colour and opacity. They have an extended shelf-life and retain their bright colour when stored. Most Japanese noodles are sold in this form.

4.0 NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF NOODLES

Basically, Noodles are high in carbohydrates and fat but low in fibre, vitamins and minerals (Park et al., 2011). Typical instant noodle has 9% protein, 30% fat and 55% carbohydrate. The high carbohydrate and fat in noodles can leads to excessive intake of calories leading to obesity with associated diseases ( Ekene ,2010 ).

The main ingredient is flour, fat, the seasoning packet, some MSG, salt, grease, chili powder and some additivesMSG is a flavor enhancer and has been reported to have the potential of triggering allergic reactions such as burning sensations and headaches. The processes especially frying can lead to complete destruction of vitamin B ( Ekene ,2010 ).

Various nutrition disorders can be triggered with the low intake of vitamins and high intake of salt and other chemical seasonings (www.best-news.us).

Instant noodles also have high salt that can cause increase renal load or high blood pressure .Codex standards allow the use of 10,000 mg/kg of the chemical propylene glycol an antifreeze ingredient as humectants in instant noodles production. This is readily absorbed in the body system and can accumulate in the heart , liver, kidneys causing abnormalities (Wikipedia encyclopedia,2013)

Most importantly, instant noodles have been reported to be dangerous to children if eaten every day. The ability of children under five to absorb nutrients has been observed to be reduced after consuming instant noodles. Instant noodles packaging can also cause cancer ( Iva, 2013 ).

The presence of oxidation products resulting from poor maintenance of the oil used in frying is also a thing of concern. If the cooking oil is not maintained at the proper temperature or changed as often as necessary, these oxidation products that pose various health risks can be present in the foods .However, noodles especially instant forms as earlier observed have become popular among ready to eat meals in many parts of the world. Consequently, there have been a lot of improvements in their quality. Instant noodles recently are being fortified with vitamin A, Iron, zinc and iodine (Melse-Boonstra et al., 2000 and Acholonu ,2001).In rural Vietnam, Instant noodles have been found to be a suitable vehicle for iron fortification to improve iron deficiency anemia in primary school (Le et al ., 2007 ).In Phillipines, about 85% of the Instant noodles available in the market are now voluntarily fortified while 50 % are voluntarily fortified in Indonesia . In making the best of noodles in Nigeria, this paper therefore posits the following :

5.0 RECOMMENDATIONS

i Nutritional value and health benefits of instant noodles can be improved by incorporating some highly nutritive flours. Buckwheat flour is one of such. Buckwheat is very rich in fiber and protein and has also been reported to have probiotic qualities (Tina,2011).The fiber problem can also be ameliorated by the addition of barley flour and oat bran that have been reported to have a high level of β -Glucan (soluble fibre) (Gary, 2010 and Reungmaneepaitor et al .,2006) .

ii Fortification of noodles is a measure to be embraced by all stakeholders Instant noodles can be fortified with micronutrient or vitamin premixes. This can be achieved either by fortifying the flour used in making the noodles or by fortifying the seasoning. Fortificants may be introduced prior to the dough mixing step. However, choosing the appropriate form of fortificant is important to minimize nutrient-nutrient as well as nutrient- food interaction and any resulting adverse effects. Critical issues about stability, bioavailability and efficacy of the fortificants as well as the effectiveness of the intervention should also be addressed.

Iv Limiting the consumption of instant noodles to once in a week to prevent stomach ulcer or gastritis or any hazard associated with long consumption is advisable.

v The nutritional quality can also be improved by the addition of nutrient rich foods such as vegetables, carrots, cabbage ,and tomato or lean cuts of meat.

REFERENCES

Acholonu (2001) Flour fortification: delivery of Vitamins/Blending and monitoring compliance. Food and beverage March, April, 17-21.

Ekene, O. (2010), Are instant noodles really good for you? http://emzorpharm.com/ewellafrica acessed 04 /06/13

Hou, G and Kruk, M.(1998) Asian Noodle Technology Asian Noodle Technical Bulletin Vol 20, 12:1-10.

Iva, R. (2013) Letter: The Effects of Consuming Instant noodles. Jakata post April 28 acessed 28/04/2013

Igwe, A (2012), A technical report of Dangote Noodles Limited. SIWES Report submitted to Department of Food Science and Technology, Ebonyi State University Abakaliki..

Le, H.T, Brower, I.D. ,De Wolf, C. A.,Van der Heijden L.,Nguyen K.K., and

Kok F. J. (2007) Suitability of instant noodles for Iron fortification to

combat Iron deficiency anaemia among primary schoo children in

rural Vietnam. Food Nut Bull. 28(3) 291 -298.

Morris, C.F, Jetters,H,C and Engle, D.A (2000). Effect of Processing Formula and Measurement variables on Alkaline Noodle Colour – toward an optimized Laboratory System. Cereal Chem 77:77-85.

Melse-Boonstraa, De Pee, S. and Martini, E. (2000), The Potential of

various Foods to serve as a carier for micronutrient fortification. from remote areas in Indonesia Eur J Clin Nut. 54(11); 822-7.

Oh, N.H., Seib P.A., Deyoe C,W. and Ward A .B (1983). Noodles. I.

Measuring the textural characteristics of cooked noodles. Cereal Chem. 60: 433-438.

Ojure, M.A. and Quadin J.A. (2012), Quality Evaluation of Noodles produced from Unripe Plantain flour using Xanthum Gum IJRAAS 13(3): 740 – 752

Park,J, Le J, Jang Y.A, Chung H.R and kim J. (2011), A comparison of

food and nutrient intake between instant noodle consumers in Korean Adults. Nut Research and Practice5(3) 443-449

Reungmaneepaitor, S., Sikkhamondhol, C. and Tiangpook C. (2006), Nutritive Improvement of Instant fried Noodles with Oat bran Songklanakarin J. Sc, Technol 28(1):89-98.

Tina, P (2010), Nutritional value of Buckwheat at noodles – liveStrong.

com. acessed 28/04 /2013

WINA,( 2013) Expanding Market World Instant Noodle. Instant

Noodle.org. Acessed 03/06/ 2013

Gary,H.(2010) Developing Barley fortified instant Noodles. grainsforhealth.org/assets/docs. Acessed 28/05 2013

Wikipedia Encyclopedia, (2013) Instant Noodles en.wikipedia.org/wiki/instant noodles. Acessed 28/04 2013

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